標本收集程序 Specimen Collection Procedure

  

為確保化驗結果的準確和可靠性,必須確保標本的質素,因此在採集標本時,客人必須嚴格遵守以下的規定。


The accuracy and quality of testing depends on the quality of collected specimens. The following guidelines must be strictly followed when collecting specimen for testing. 

A. 標本標籤 Specimen Labelling

每個標本必須有雙重識別碼,包括病人姓名及以下任何一項資料。

  

Each specimen should be labelled with at least two identifiers. Patient's full name and one of the following information is required. 


1. 香港身份證號碼           1. HKID

2. 護照號碼                          2. Passport No.

3. 診所單號                          3. Clinic No.

4. 病人號碼                          4. Patient No.

             

B. 化驗單資料 Request Form Information

  

以下資料必須填寫於化驗單上。

The following information must be included in request form. 


1. 病人姓名                                 1. Name  

2. 香港身份證/護照號碼       2. HKID / Passport No.   

3. 性別                                            3. Sex 

4. 出生日期                                  4. Date of Birth (DOB) 

5. 轉介醫生姓名                        5. Full name of referring doctor 

6. 轉介醫生電話號碼              6. Referring doctor Tel. no. 

7. 轉介醫生傳真號碼              7. Referring doctor Fax no. 

8. 現金或記帳或醫療卡         8. Cash / On Account/ Medical Card 

9. 標本種類                                  9. Specimen type 

10. 所需檢查項目                     10. Test requested

C. 標本拒收準則 Specimen Rejection Criteria

 1. 標本遺漏標籤                                1. Specimens did not label 

 2. 標本或化驗單被錯誤標記       2. Incorrectly labelled specimens / request form 

 3. 過量或不足量的標本                 3. Insufficient or overfilled specimens 

 4. 使用不適當的容器或保存劑  4. Incorrect container or preservative 

 5. 標本滲漏或容器破裂                 5. Leaking or broken containers 

 6. 標本未能於指定時限送到       6. Delayed specimen arrival time 

D. 標本簡稱及縮寫註解 Abbreviation for Specimen

CB  = Clotted Blood (紅蓋或金蓋管)

EDTA = EDTA Blood (紫蓋管) 

FB = Fluoride Blood (灰蓋管) 

MSU = 中段小便 Mid-Stream Urine

E. 標本儲存及運送要求 Specimen Storage and Transport

  

一般情況下,在收樣員到達前,標本應儲存於雪櫃或陰涼位置。因應個別檢驗項目之需要,標本或需特別處理,請參考本手冊對個別檢驗列明的要求。


In general, specimens should be kept cool or refrigerated until collected by the courier. Special handling of specimens may be required for some tests and are specified in remarks of corresponding tests. 

F. 中段小便標本 Mid-Stream Urine Specimen

  

1. 病人應先讓頭段小便排到馬桶內。               

2. 再收集中段小便於標本瓶內至半

3. 然後將餘下的小便都排到馬桶內。

4. 小心把瓶蓋緊緊地扭好以確保沒有滲漏。

5. 在被收取前,將標本放於4°C 雪櫃內。 


1. Patients are firstly required to pass a small amount of urine into the toilet.

2. Collect urine into the sterile container until at least half the container with urine

3. Finish voiding the rest of urine into the toilet.

4. Recap the container carefully and tightly to ensure there is no leakage.

5. Store at 4°C refrigerator before pickup. 

G. 大便隱血測試標本收集指引 Stool Specimen for Occult Blood

  

1. 請在七天內把大便標本交給化驗室,否則樣本需要重新收集。如非即日把樣本交回化驗室請把樣本包好放入4度雪櫃保持樣本質素。

2. 每次只需留大概一茶匙份量的標本 。 

3. 請於標本瓶外寫上病人的姓名和收集日期。 

4. 建議病人遵守以下各項:

    (a) 防止經小便、沖廁水及廁紙污染了大便標本。 

    (b) 避免服食阿士匹靈和過多的其他藥物。 

    (c) 於月經來臨前最少三天收集大便標本。 

5. 痔瘡和肛腸出血會影響化驗結果。


如有疑問,應請教你的醫生。


1. Please deliver the stool specimen to the laboratory in 7 days, otherwise the specimen will be rejected and require recollection. 

2. Only a spoonful amount of specimen is required. 

3. Label each specimen with your name and date of collection. 

4. Patients are advised to avoid:

    (a) Contamination via urine, flushing water, and toilet paper; 

    (b) Administration of aspirin and other medicines taken in excess; 

    (c) Collection within at least three days prior to menstruation. 

5. Haemorrhoids or anorectal bleeding may affect testing result. 


You should consult your doctor if in doubt. 

H. 精液標本收集指引 Semen Specimen

  

1. 精液標本必須於禁慾二至七日內收集 。

2. 收集精液標本前二十四小時不能喝酒。

3. 收集精液標本前,先清潔尿道口。

4. 必須將全部精液標本收集在所提供的消毒標本瓶內。

5. 請盡快將收集到的精液標本於一小時內交回化驗所,而運送途中必須將標本保持溫暖。


1. Patients are required to abstain from sexual activity and seminal ejaculation for two to seven  days prior to semen collection.

2. Abstain from drinking alcohol 24 hours prior to collection.

3. Clean the urethral opening before collecting the seminal fluid.

4. Seminal fluid must be fully collected into the sterile specimen container provided.

Specimen should be delivered to the laboratory within one hour after collection. It is advisable to keep the specimen warm during transportation. 

I. 痰標本收集指引 Sputum Specimen

1. 建議病人收集晨早起床後第一口痰。收集痰標本前,應用清水漱口,但要避免刷牙或用漱口水。

2. 病人應該用力從肺部將痰咳出來,同時要注意坐姿要挺直及避免將口水和鼻道後之分泌咳出來。

3. 將痰直接咳出和吐進標本瓶內,避免將痰咳在標本瓶邊或標本瓶的外面。

4. 將痰標本盡快交給化驗室。如未能即時交回,請將標本儲存於4°C櫃內。 


  

1. Patients are advised to collect first morning sputum, by thoroughly rinsing mouth with water prior to collection while avoiding brushing teeth and gargling mouthwash. 

2. Sputum specimen should be obtained from the throat by vigorously coughing while sitting in an upright position and avoiding contact and contamination with saliva or postnasal discharge. 

3. Expectorate sputum directly into the container provided, while avoiding contaminating the rim and exterior of the container with sputum. 

4. Return the sputum specimen to the laboratory as soon as possible. If transit is delayed, store specimen at 4°C. 

J. 幽門螺旋桿菌吹氣測試 Urea Breath Test for Helicobacter Pylori

  

1. 病人需要空腹最少4小時及避免飲水或飲用其他飲料。 

2. 收集標本前病人要停止服用以下藥物。如有疑問,應請教你的醫生。

    (a) 停止服用最少四星期抗生素或鉍製劑;

    (b) 停止服用最少兩星期質子泵抑製藥;

    (c) 停止服用最少三天 H2受體阻抗劑;

    (d) 測試當天停止服用制酸劑或胃藥。


1. Patients are required to fast for a period of at least 4 hours and to avoid drinking water or any other fluid. 

2. Patients are required to discontinue administration of the following drugs prior to the collection procedure. You should consult your doctor if in doubt. 

     (a) Antibiotics for Helicobacter Pylori or Bismuth Preparation 

          treatments within at least 4 weeks; 

     (b) Proton Pump Inhibitor treatments within at least 2 weeks; 

     (c) H2 Antagonists within at least 3 days; 

     (d) Antacids on the day prior to collection.